What are the Signs of Lupus?

Lupus, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a chronic autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple organs of the body. It is characterized by periods of flares, where the disease is active, and periods of remission, when symptoms subside. Lupus can be challenging to diagnose as its symptoms often mimic those of other diseases. Nevertheless, there are some common signs of lupus that can act as indicators of the condition.

Common Signs and Symptoms of Lupus

The symptoms of lupus can vary widely among individuals. They may come and go, and different symptoms may appear at different times during the course of the disease. Below are some common signs and symptoms associated with lupus.


Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms of lupus, affecting about 90% of patients. This fatigue is often severe enough to interfere with daily activities and may not improve with rest.

Skin Rash

A significant portion of lupus patients experience a characteristic rash, commonly referred to as a “butterfly rash”. This malar rash spreads across the cheeks and the bridge of the nose, taking on a shape similar to the wings of a butterfly.

Joint Pain and Swelling

Arthralgia, or joint pain, is another common symptom of lupus. It is frequently accompanied by joint swelling and stiffness, particularly in the morning.


Patients with lupus may also experience recurrent low-grade fevers. These fevers are usually a response to inflammation or infection in the body.

Sensitivity to Sunlight

Photosensitivity, or an increased sensitivity to sunlight, is another common symptom of lupus. Exposure to the sun can trigger lupus skin lesions or even cause a lupus flare.

Can Lupus Manifest Without a Rash?

Yes, it is entirely possible for someone to have lupus without developing a rash.

Lupus: More Than Skin Deep

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus, is an autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood cells, brain, and other organs. The symptoms and severity of lupus can vary greatly from person to person, and not everyone with lupus will experience all the possible symptoms.

The malar, or butterfly, rash across the cheeks and bridge of the nose is one of the more well-known signs of lupus. A discoid rash – red, scaly patches on the skin that can cause scarring – is also common in lupus. However, while these rashes are characteristic of lupus, they are not present in all cases.

Other Symptoms

Additional symptoms of lupus may include chest pain, hair loss, ulcers in the mouth or nose, swollen lymph nodes, and poor circulation in fingers and toes (Raynaud’s phenomenon).

“Lupus is a complex disease that presents differently in each individual. Therefore, it’s important to understand its symptoms and work closely with healthcare providers for a timely and accurate diagnosis.”

Early Warning Signs of Lupus

Lupus can be a complex and challenging disease to diagnose due to its wide array of symptoms, many of which can be attributed to other health conditions. However, early detection is key to managing the disease and mitigating potential damage to organs and tissues. Here are some early warning signs to be aware of:


One of the most common early warning signs of lupus is a pervasive sense of fatigue. As many as 90% of lupus patients report experiencing significant and often debilitating fatigue.

Unexplained Fever

An unexplained low-grade fever that persists could be an early sign of lupus. These fevers usually range from 98.5°F to 101°F and are often a response to inflammation or infection in the body.

Joint Pain, Stiffness and Swelling

Pain, stiffness, and swelling in joints, particularly in the hands, wrists, and knees, can be a sign of lupus. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, lupus-related joint problems are less disabling and usually don’t cause deformity.

Skin Rash or Lesions

The development of a skin rash, particularly a butterfly-shaped rash across the cheeks and the bridge of the nose (malar rash), can be a significant early warning sign of lupus. Some people with lupus may also experience a discoid rash – red, scaly patches on the skin that can cause scarring.


Some lupus patients may develop a rash or suffer from a disease flare-up after exposure to the sun or even artificial light. This heightened sensitivity to sunlight is an early warning sign of lupus.

Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Raynaud’s phenomenon, which causes fingers and toes to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress, could be an early warning sign of lupus.

Unusual Hair Loss

While it’s normal to lose some hair every day, unusually heavy hair loss or thinning could be a sign of lupus. Some people may lose clumps of hair, while others may suffer from thinning hair across their scalp.

“Early detection of lupus can be critical in managing the disease and limiting its potential damage. Understanding the early warning signs can lead to earlier diagnosis, treatment, and better long-term outcomes.”

Remember, while these signs can indicate lupus, they can also signify other medical conditions. If you experience these symptoms, it is crucial to consult a healthcare provider who can provide a comprehensive evaluation and guide you through the diagnosis process. Early recognition and treatment of lupus can significantly help manage the disease and enhance the quality of life for those living with it.

Rarer Signs: Lupus affecting various body systems

While the above-mentioned symptoms are common, lupus can also affect other body systems, leading to a variety of other signs.

Kidney Inflammation

Lupus nephritis, which refers to the inflammation of the kidneys, can lead to high blood pressure, blood in urine, and increased urination.

Lung and Heart Inflammation

Pleurisy, inflammation of the lining of the chest cavity and lungs, can cause chest pain and difficulty breathing. Likewise, lupus can cause inflammation of the heart, leading to pericarditis, presenting as sharp chest pain and a feeling of heaviness in the chest.

Neurological Symptoms

In some cases, lupus may affect the nervous system, leading to symptoms like headaches, seizures, vision problems, and behavioral changes.

Recognizing Lupus: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis

As the symptoms of lupus are diverse and vary from person to person, diagnosing this condition can be challenging. However, recognizing the signs early on can lead to timely treatment, which can significantly improve a patient’s quality of life.


There isn’t a single test that can definitively diagnose lupus. Instead, doctors use a combination of blood and urine tests, physical examination, and an assessment of symptoms to diagnose the disease. The American College of Rheumatology has established a set of 11 criteria for diagnosing lupus. If a person exhibits at least four out of these 11 symptoms, they may be diagnosed with lupus.

“Lupus can be a difficult disease to diagnose due to its varied symptoms. However, understanding these signs and seeking medical advice promptly can help manage the condition better.”

Understanding lupus, its signs and symptoms, and the importance of early diagnosis can lead to better management of this complex autoimmune disease. The diversity of symptoms makes lupus a challenging condition to diagnose and treat, but awareness and recognition of these symptoms can help patients seek timely medical attention, potentially leading to better treatment outcomes.

Lupus Diagnosis in the UK

Diagnosing lupus in the UK generally follows a similar process as the rest of the world, given the global standardization of medical practices.

Initial Consultation

Upon exhibiting signs of lupus, such as persistent fatigue, skin rashes, joint pain, and photosensitivity, an individual would typically consult a general practitioner (GP). The GP would then take into account the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and perform a physical examination.

Referral to Specialist

Given the complexity and diverse symptoms associated with lupus, the GP would often refer the patient to a specialist, usually a rheumatologist, for further assessment. In some cases, depending on the symptoms, referrals might also be made to a dermatologist, nephrologist, or a neurologist.

Diagnostic Tests

Specialists would then conduct a series of blood and urine tests to further evaluate the patient’s condition. Key tests include:

  • Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test: This is a common blood test used to detect autoimmune diseases, including lupus. A positive ANA test indicates the presence of these autoantibodies in the blood.
  • Anti-dsDNA test: This test is specifically designed to detect the antibodies that target the genetic material – DNA. It can be particularly helpful in diagnosing lupus.
  • Complement test: The levels of complement proteins in the blood may decrease during a lupus flare, making this test useful for diagnosing lupus.
  • Urinalysis: This test checks for increased protein levels or red blood cells in the urine, which could be an indication of lupus nephritis.

The UK Guidelines

The British Society for Rheumatology provides guidelines for the diagnosis and management of lupus. These guidelines include a set of criteria for diagnosing lupus similar to those set by the American College of Rheumatology.

“Navigating lupus can be a journey filled with challenges. However, with the help of medical professionals and the guidance provided by the British Society for Rheumatology, managing the disease becomes more attainable.”

It’s important to note that because of the diverse nature of lupus symptoms, the process of diagnosing this autoimmune disease might take time. Therefore, patients need to maintain open and continuous communication with their healthcare providers to manage the disease effectively. Understanding the disease and its symptoms will go a long way in ensuring a more accurate diagnosis and a better treatment plan.

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